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更新日期:2013-06-28  浏览:1902

1.The concept of steel: steel ingot, billet and steel are made by pressure of various shapes, sizes and performance into the materials we need.

Steel is an important material in the national construction and the realization of the four modernizations essential, is widely applied and type varied, according to the different steel section shapes, generally divided into profiles, plates, pipes and metal products; in order to facilitate the organization of steel production, supplication and management, which can be divided into heavy rail, light rail, large steel, medium section steel, small steel, steel cold-formed steel, high-quality steel, wire, plate, sheet, electrical silicon steel sheet, strip steel, seamless steel pipe, welded steel pipe, metal products and other varieties.  

The majority of steel production is by pressure processing, to make the processed steel (ingot blank, etc.) to produce deformation. According to the different temperatures of steel processing, can be divided into cold and hot processing. The main processing methods of steel are:

Rolling: make steel metal through a gap of a pair of rotating and blank rolls (shapes), reducing the section and increasing the length due to compression of the material roll, which is the most commonly used means of production of steel, mainly used in the production of steel profiles, sheet, pipe material. Cold-rolled, hot-rolled divided.

Forging steel: the processing method of the use of hammer reciprocating impact force or pressing force to change the material into the shape and size what we desired. Generally divided into free forging and die forging, commonly used for large-scale production of wood, probing pipe steel billet section feet inch larger material.

Pulling steel: the processing method which the metal blank will have rolled (type, tube, products and so on) shifting into decreasing section, and increasing length. It is mostly used for cold working.

1.Extrusion: the processing method of pressing steel metal into the closed extrusion mold, to end, so that the same shape and size of the finished product is extruded from the hole provision. It is much used in the

production of non-ferrous metal materials steel Black metal, steel and non-ferrous metals
Briefly introduce the basic concept of ferrous metals, steel and nonferrous metal before classify steels.
1. black metal is an alloy of irons, such as steel, pig iron, iron alloy, cast iron, etc. Steel and iron are iron based on carbon steel, alloy main add elements, collectively known as the iron carbon alloy. Pig iron is smelted by the
iron ore in blast furnace, mainly used for steelmaking and steel castings. Melting the cast iron in cupola becomes the cast iron (liquid); casting the liquid cast iron into cast steel is called the iron castings.
2. The steel is steelmaking the pig iron in arc furnace according to certain process. Steel products are steel ingot, billet and steel by molten steel castings etc. When referred to the steel, generally means to roll into various
steels. Steel belongs to the black metal but steel is not equivalent to the black metal.

3. Nonferrous steel also calls non-ferrous metal, means metal and alloy, in addition to black metal, such as copper, tin, lead, zinc, aluminum and brass, bronze, aluminum alloy and bearing alloy. In addition to the industry
also use chrome, nickel, manganese, molybdenum, cobalt, vanadium steel, tungsten, titanium, and these metals are mainly used as alloy additives, to improve the properties of metals, including tungsten, molybdenum,
titanium, steel, cemented carbide tool used to produce. oil and gas pipeline These non-ferrous metals are called industrial metal, besides there are precious metals: gold, silver, platinum, and the rare metal, including radioactive uranium,
radium and other steel.
II.Classification of steels
Steel is the carbon content in steel between 0.04%-2.3% iron carbon alloy. In order to ensure its toughness and plasticity, the carbon content is generally not more than 1.7%. The main elements in addition to iron, carbon steel, and silicon, manganese, sulfur, phosphorus and others. There are many classifications and varieties of steel. Following are seven kinds of main methods:
1. According to the quality of steel
(1) ordinary steel (P ≤ 0.045%, S ≤ 0.050%)
(2) high quality steel (P, S ≤ 0.035%)
(3) high quality steel (P ≤ 0.035%, S ≤ 0.030%)
2. According to the classification of chemical compositions
(1): A. carbon steel low carbon steel (C ≤ 0.25%); B. carbon steel (C ≤ 0.25~0.60%); high carbon steel C. (C ≤ 0.60%).
(2): A. alloy steel low alloy steel (total content ≤ alloy element 5%); B. alloy steel (5~10% total content, alloying elements); C. alloy steel (alloy elements content > 10%).
3. According to the classification of steel forming method
(1) forged steel; steel; (2) (3) hot-rolled steel; (4) steel.
4. According to the classification of steel microstructure
(1) annealed state: A. hypoeutectoid steel (ferrite + pearlite); B. eutectoid steel (pearlite); C. hypereutectoid steels of steel (pearlite and cementite ledeburite steel); D. (pearlite and cementite).
(2) normal condition: A. pearlitic steel; B. steel; C. martensitic steel and D. austenitic steel.
5.According to the purpose of the classification
(1)steel for construction and engineering: a.plain carbon structural steel; B. low alloy structural steel; C. steel
(2) structure steel
Steel for manufacturing A. machinery: (a) quenched and tempered steel; (b) surface hardening of steel structure: including carburizing steel, infiltration of surface quenching ammonia steel; (c) free-cutting steel; (d) cold forming steel include: cold stamping steel, cold heading steel.
B. spring steel
C. bearing steel
(3): A. tool steel carbon tool steel; B. alloy tool steel; high-speed tool steel.
(4) special steel: A. stainless steel; heat resistant steel B.: including antioxidant steel, heat resistant steel, steel valve; C. electrothermal alloy steel; D. steel; e. steel for low temperature service; F. electrical steel.
(5) the professional steel -- such as bridge steel, ship steel, boiler steel, pressure vessel steel, machinery steel. 
6. Comprehensive classification
(1) ordinary steel
A. carbon steel structure: (a) Q195 (b); Q215 (A, B); (c) Q235 (A, B, C); (d) Q255 (A, B); (E) Q275.
B. low alloy structural steel
A common structure steel C. thermal expansion pipe specific use
(2) the high quality steel (including senior high quality steel)
A. steel structure steel: (a) quality carbon structural steel; (b) alloy structural steel, spring steel; (c); (d) free-cutting steel; (E) bearing steel; (f) specific use high-quality structural steel.
The B. tool steel: (a) carbon tool steel; (b) alloy tool steel; (c) high speed tool steel.
C. special steel performance: (a) stainless steel (b); heat resistant steel; (c) electric heating alloy steel; (d) electrical steel; (E) high manganese wear-resistant steel.
7. By refining methods
(1) according to the furnace branch
A. open-hearth steel: (a) acid open-hearth steel; (b) basic open-hearth steel.
B. converter steel: (a) Bessemer steel; (b) basic converter steel.
Or (a) the bottom blowing converter steel; (b) side blown converter steel; BOF steel (C).
C. EAF steel: (a) electric arc furnace steel; (b) ESR steel; (c) induction furnace steel; (d) vacuum self-consuming furnace steel; (E) electron beam furnace steel.
(2) steel by deoxidizing degree and pouring system
A. boiling steel; B. semi-killed steel; C. fully- killed steel; D. special killed steel.
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